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Vertical Farming 2.0: From Setbacks into Sustainable Success

The New Dawn of Vertical Farming 2.0

Key Takeaways

  • The vertical farming sector has experienced significant financial turmoil, leading to bankruptcy filings by key companies, indicating a transition towards a more viable and enduring approach to vertical farming, akin to a “2.0” era. 
  • Historical patterns of speculative excess, illustrated by events like the tech industry crashes and tulip mania, find a parallel in the recent vertical farming market correction, where investments surpassed actual value. 
  • The current market readjustment is steering the industry away from speculative growth towards establishing robust, fundamentally-driven business models ensuring long-term stability. 


What started as a movement to revolutionize the agriculture industry, the vertical farming industry has encounter it’s setbacks. In the past decade, the industry’s enthusiasm was tempered by economic realities, leading to the bankruptcy of several key players. Among them, AeroFarms, a pioneering indoor farming company based in New Jersey, encountered severe financial difficulties amidst an unpredictable economy and escalating operational costs. This scenario was not isolated, as other prominent entities like AppHarvest and Kalera also sought refuge in Chapter 11 bankruptcy. These cases exemplify some of the challenges faced by vertical farming businesses preceding the transition to what is I now refer to as vertical farming 2.0. 

Vertical Farming 2.0 is the revitalization of the industry, building upon the lessons learned from its predecessors and the setbacks of past market bubbles. The journey of vertical farming mirrors the evolutionary paths of the tech and tulip industries, which also experienced their own cycles of boom and bust before stabilizing. By examining these parallels, Vertical Farming 2.0 seeks not only to avoid past pitfalls but to innovate and secure its place in the future of agriculture.  

The Echoes of Tech's Troubles in Vertical Farming

The recent challenges in the vertical farming landscape, marked by several companies filing for bankruptcy, bear a resemblance to the tech industry’s recent turmoil. Much like the vertical farming companies, the tech industry has witnessed significant layoffs and market valuation adjustments, indicative of a contracting bubble. Following a period of rapid expansion and heightened investment, similar to the ‘dotcom era’, the tech sector experienced a wave of job cuts reaching 136,831 this year, a sharp reminder of the sector’s volatility and reminiscent of the 168,395 jobs cuts back in 2001.   

This correction in the tech industry is akin to the “bursting” of the potential overvaluation in vertical farming, where substantial investment and rapid growth may not have aligned with sustainable business models, leading to the financial strains we’ve observed with companies like AeroFarms and Kalera.  Both sectors have faced readjustments as part of their natural business cycle, with periods of enthusiastic investment followed by a sobering reassessment of value and long-term viability. The bursting of such bubbles may serve as a hard reset, ideally leading to more grounded strategies and sustainable growth trajectories in the aftermath. 

Multi ethnic tech enginners developing html code
Major Factor

Financial Realities and Market Corrections

The collapse of tulip prices during the 17th-century Dutch phenomenon known as “tulip mania” is one of the earliest and most notorious market bubbles in history, and it serves as an apt historical companion to the contemporary challenges faced by vertical farming and the tech industry. During tulip mania, the price of tulip bulbs reached extraordinarily high levels, only to dramatically collapse in 1637, revealing a disparity between price and inherent value, much like the vertical farming companies that have had to file for bankruptcy after their initial high valuations could not be sustained. 

This tulip price collapse can be paralleled with the downfall of companies in the vertical farming sector that went through rapid expansion and investment, mirroring the speculative nature of tulip mania and subsequent fall. Much like the traders during the tulip bubble who neglected the inherent value of the flower, leading to the creation of a speculative bubble, vertical farming companies may have overestimated the immediate profitability of their ventures without establishing a solid foundation for long-term growth. 

Furthermore, the bursting of the tulip bubble teaches a valuable lesson about the difference between speculative value and sustainable business models. This is similar to what we observed in tech industry downfalls and the recent bankruptcies in the vertical farming industry with AeroFarms and Kalera. Each instance serves as a reminder of the risks associated with speculative investment and the importance of building businesses with strong fundamentals that can endure beyond the initial excitement of a new industry or technology. 

Point of Comparison Tulip Mania (1630s) Dot-Com Bubble (Late 1990s-Early 2000s) Vertical Farming Bubble (2023)
Introduction of tulips in Europe
Advancements in internet technology
Innovations in vertical farming tech
Investor Attitude
Speculative euphoria
Speculative euphoria around tech startups
High expectations for sustainability & tech integration
Asset Valuation
Excessively high prices for tulip bulbs
Overvalued internet companies
Overvaluation of vertical farming ventures
1637: when prices reached their highest
2000: when the NASDAQ hit its peak
2023: Prior to the bankruptcies
Sudden and dramatic collapse in bulb prices
Sharp decline in tech stock prices
Bankruptcies of major vertical farming companies
Economic Impact
Financial hardship for investors, but limited to the region
Global economic downturn, extensive layoffs
Sector-wide reassessment and financial distress
Aftermath/New Standards
The introduction of more structured trading markets
Shift to more sustainable business models, scrutiny of tech investments
Emergence of Vertical Farming 2.0 with emphasis on viability and stability
Long-term Effects
Beware of irrational speculation
Reinforced the importance of profitability and business fundamentals
Likely increase in regulatory oversight and move towards practical growth strategies

Lessons from Tulip Mania: Speculative Value vs. Sustainable Business Models

The collapse of the Tulip Mania and the recent adjustments in the vertical farming and tech industries are historical precedents that usher in new eras of reevaluation and the setting of new standards. Market bubbles, characterized by rapid escalation in asset prices, often reflect a detachment from intrinsic values, leading to unsustainable growth. This phenomenon is observed not only in the historical context of the 17th-century tulip market but also resonates through the 21st-century narratives of vertical farming and technology sectors. 

In the aftermath of these collapses, industries typically enter a phase of introspection and correction. Resources that were previously allocated based on speculative growth expectations are reallocated towards more fundamentally sound areas. This period of recalibration can lead to the establishment of stricter regulations, a deeper understanding of market dynamics, and the adoption of measures that can safeguard against future asset bubbles. 

Workers with face mask using tablet in vertical farming 2.0, sustainable business and coronavirus.

Conclusion: Emerging Stronger Vertical Farming 2.0

As these markets emerge from the rubble of their respective bubbles, there is often a newfound emphasis on strong fundamentals and more moderate, measured growth. This creates the potential for more stable markets that are less prone to the whims of speculative frenzy and more reflective of actual value and long-term potential. The historical precedence of the tulip mania, much like the tech industry’s dot-com bubble and the bursting bubble in the vertical farming sector, serves as a collective learning experience—spurring the development of more resilient economic structures that can withstand the ebb and flow of market sentiments while fostering sustainable growth and innovation. 

We will be diving more into how the vertical farming industry is maturing and what that means for the overall industry. Stay tune!


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